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Biology Course Outline

Biology 

Semester 1 (A)

Module 1: What is Biology? 

This module provides an introduction to scientific investigations, methods, observations, and communication while focusing on the principals and characteristics of living things. Student identifies the importance and goals of science through scientific methods, observations, investigations and communications. Scientific theory and scientific investigations will be explained to determine their differences. 

Science and the Natural World:

  • Identify the goal of science.
  • Describe how scientists study the natural world.
  • Explain how and why scientists do experiments.
  • Describe types of scientific investigations.
  • Explain what a scientific theory is.    

Biology: The Study of Life:  

  • List the characteristics of all living things.
  • State four unifying principles of biology.
  • Describe how living things interact.
  • Explain how life on Earth evolves. 

Module 2: The Chemistry of Life

This module forms a correlation to chemistry and biology, the chemically balance components of living things. Students will identify the importance of elements and compounds and state the role of the chemical reactions and explain the importance of enzymes in living organisms. Students will recognize acids, bases, and pH. Students will evaluate the importance of water, water's structure and properties, water's distribution on Earth. 

Matter and Organic Compounds:

  • Define elements and compounds.
  • Explain why carbon is essential to life on Earth.
  • Describe the structure and function of the four major types of organic compounds.    

Biochemical Reactions:  

  • Describe what happens in chemical reactions.
  • State the role of energy in chemical reactions.
  • Explain the importance of enzymes to living organisms.

Water, Acids, and Bases:

  • Describe the distribution of Earth’s water.
  • Identify water’s structure and properties.
  • Define acids, bases, and pH.
  • Explain why water is essential for life. 

Module 3: Cellular Structure and Function

This module will introduce the importance of cell structure and function. Students will compare and contrast prokaryotic, eukaryotic, plant and animals cells. Structure and functions are important for various parts of the cells. The students will understand that the structure and functions determine the roles of several cell parts. Cell parts have an organized job that students will have to identify. In this unit, students will explain how DNA, RNA, protein, cell transport, and homeostasis have important factors that cells need to function and move.  

Introduction of Cells:

  • State the cell theory, and list the discoveries that led to it.
  • Describe the diversity of cell shapes, and explain why cells are so small.
  • Identify the parts that all cells have in common.
  • Contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Cell Structures:  

  • Describe the structure and function of the plasma membrane.
  • Identify the roles of the cytoplasm and cytoskeleton.
  • Outline the form and function of the nucleus and other organelles.
  • List special structures of plant cells, and state what they do.
  • Explain how cells are organized in living things. 

Cell Transport and Homeostasis:

  • Describe different types of passive transport.
  • Explain how different types of active transport occur.
  • Outline the role of cell transport in homeostasis.

Module 4: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

This module examines the stages of photosynthesis, light reactions, the Calvin cycle, cellular respiration, glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain. Students will outline how living things make and use food and why living things need energy. Students will document the three stages of cellular respiration and describe important parts, roles, and products. 

Energy for Life:

  • State why living things need energy.
  • Describe how autotrophs and heterotrophs obtain energy.
  • Compare and contrast glucose and ATP.
  • Outline how living things make and use food.

Photosynthesis: Sugar for Food:  

  • Outline the stages of photosynthesis.
  • Describe the chloroplast and its role in photosynthesis.
  • List the steps of the light reactions.
  • Describe the Calvin cycle.
  • Define chemosynthesis. 

Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration:

  • Name the three stages of cellular respiration.
  • Give an overview of glycolysis.
  • Explain why glycolysis probably evolved before the other stages of aerobic respiration.
  • Describe the mitochondrion and its role in aerobic respiration.
  • List the steps of the Krebs cycle, and identify its products.
  • Explain how electron transport results in many molecules of ATP.
  • State the possible number of ATP molecules that can result from aerobic respiration. 

Anaerobic Respiration:

  • Define fermentation.
  • Describe lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation.
  • Compare the advantages of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. 

Module 5: The Cell Cycle, Mitosis, and Meiosis

This module continues with in depth content about the division of cells. The students will be introduced to cell division of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and provide a contrast between the two cells. The students will identify the phases of the two diverse cells, explain how the cell cycles are controlled and define different types of cancerous cells and how they relate to all cell cycles. Mitosis and Meiosis are types of cell divisions. These two cell cycles will be identified, compared, and contrast while determining the role and importance of chromosomes during cell divisions. Students will be assessed based on the cell structure, function, and phases of the mitosis and meiosis. 

Cell Division and the Cell Cycle:

  • Contrast cell division in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  • Identify the phases of the eukaryotic cell cycle.
  • Explain how the cell cycle is controlled.
  • Define cancer, and relate it to the cell cycle.

Chromosomes and Mitosis:  

  • Describe chromosomes and their role in mitosis.
  • Outline the phases of mitosis. 

Reproduction and Meosis:

  • Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction.
  • Give an overview of sexual reproduction, and outline the phases of meiosis.
  • Explain why sexual reproduction leads to variation in offspring.
  • Define life cycle, and identify different types of sexual life cycles. 

Module 6: Gregor Mendel and Genetics 

This module includes Mendelian genetics, inheritance, and probability, dominant, recessive, and sex-linked traits. The students will explain why and how Mendel studies pea plants. The students will express the results of Mendel's experiments. Students will state Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Students will identify the genetics of inheritance. Students will define probability and relate probability to inheritance. Students will model the Punnett square and interpreted results of Mendel's results. Students will identify the complex patterns of inheritance. 

Mendel's Investigations:

  • Explain why and how Mendel studied pea plants.
  • Describe the results of Mendel's experiments.
  • State Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.
  • Outline the genetics of inheritance.

Mendelian Inheritance:  

  • Define probability.
  • Explain how probability is related to inheritance.
  • Describe how to use a Punnett square.
  • Explain how Mendel interpreted the results of his experiments.
  • Describe complex patterns of inheritance.

Module 7: Molecular Genetics: From DNA to Proteins 

This module covers DNA, RNA, protein synthesis, mutation, and regulation of gene expression. Students will recognize the central dogma of molecular biology. The students will state the discoveries that led to knowledge of DNA and RNA structure and function and processes.

DNA and RNA:

  • State the central dogma of molecular biology.
  • Outline discoveries that led to knowledge of DNA’s structure and function.
  • Describe the structure of RNA, and identify the three main types of RNA.

Protein Synthesis:  

  • Give an overview of transcription.
  • Describe the genetic code.
  • Explain how translation occurs.

Mutation:  

  • Identify causes of mutation.
  • Compare and contrast types of mutations.
  • Explain how mutations may affect the organisms in which they occur. 

Regulation of Gene Expression:

  • Identify general mechanisms that regulate gene expression.
  • Describe how gene regulation occurs in prokaryotes.
  • Give an overview of gene regulation in eukaryotes. 

Module 8: Human Genetics and Biotechnology

This module covers the human genome and genetic diseases/disorders, including autosomal vs. sex-linked inheritance patterns, DNA technology, The Human Genome Project, and gene cloning. Students will generalize inheritance in humans for autosomal and X-linked traits. Students will confirm gene cloning and the polymerase chain reaction. Students will model how DNA technology is applied in medicine and agriculture. Students will critique some of the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by biotechnology. 

Human Chromosomes and Genes:

  • Define the human genome.
  • Describe human chromosomes and genes.
  • Explain linkage and linkage maps.

Human Inheritance:  

  • Describe inheritance in humans for autosomal and X-linked traits.
  • Identify complex modes of human inheritance.
  • Describe genetic disorders caused by mutations or abnormal numbers of chromosomes 

Biotechnology:  

  • Describe gene cloning and the polymerase chain reaction.
  • Explain how DNA technology is applied in medicine and agriculture.
  • Identify some of the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by biotechnology. 

Module 9: Life: From the First Organism Onward

This module introduces the Evolution of Life, macroevolution, mass extinctions, episodic speciation, and responses to environmental and geographic changes, Linnaean and phylogenetic classification. Students will state how scientists learn about the history of life on Earth. Students will illustrate how and when planet Earth formed. Students will explain how the first organic molecules arose and describe the characteristics of the first cells. Students will infer how eukaryotes are thought to have evolved. Students will categorized the difference evolutionary events of the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. Students will research the Linnaean classification and binomial nomenclature. The students will research phylogenetic classification and explain how it differ from Linnaean classification.

Earth Forms and Life Begins:

  • Explain how scientists learn about the history of life on Earth.
  • Describe how and when planet Earth formed.
  • Outline how the first organic molecules arose.
  • Describe the characteristics of the first cells.
  • Explain how eukaryotes are thought to have evolved.

The Evolution of Multicellular Life:  

  • Describe important events of the late Precambrian.
  • Give an overview of evolution during the Paleozoic Era.
  • Explain why the Mesozoic Era is called the age of the dinosaurs.
  • Outline the main evolutionary events of the Cenozoic Era.

Classification:  

  • Outline the Linnaean classification, and define binomial nomenclature.
  • Describe phylogenetic classification, and explain how it differs from Linnaean classification. 

Module 10: The Theory of Evolution

This module covers Darwin's Theory of Evolution, the common ancestry of all life and natural selection, including fossils, comparative anatomy and embryology, molecular biology, and biogeography. Students will identify influences on Darwin's development of evolutionary theory. The explanation of how species evolve through natural Students will differ between microevolution and macroevolution. Students will define gene pool and explain how to calculate allele frequencies. In this unit, the Hardy-Weinberg theory will be stated and the four forces of evolution will be identified. 

Darwin and the Theory of Evolution:

  • State Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.
  • Describe observations Darwin made on the voyage of the Beagle.
  • Identify influences on Darwin’s development of evolutionary theory.
  • Explain how a species can evolve through natural selection. 

Evidence for Evolution:  

  • Describe how fossils help us understand the past.
  • Explain how evidence from living species gives clues about evolution.
  • State how biogeography relates to evolutionary change.

Microevolution and the Genetics of Populations:  

  • Distinguish between microevolution and macroevolution.
  • Define gene pool, and explain how to calculate allele frequencies.
  • State the Hardy-Weinberg theorem
  • Identify the four forces of evolution. 

Macroevolution and the Origin of Species

  • Describe two ways that new species may originate.
  • Define coevolution, and give an example.
  • Distinguish between gradualism and punctuated equilibrium. 

Semester 2 (B)

Module 1: The Principles of Ecology 

This module covers ecology and its relationship to energy, ecosystems, and the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles. Students will distinguish between abiotic and biotic factors. Students will model how energy flows through ecosystems and explain how food chains and webs model feeding relationships. Students examine biogeochemical cycles, water cycles, carbon cycles, and nitrogen cycles. In this unit terrestrial biomes and aquatic biomes will be identified. 

The Science of Ecology:

  • Distinguish between abiotic and biotic factors.
  • Define ecosystem and other ecological concepts.
  • Describe how energy flows through ecosystems.
  • Explain how food chains and webs model feeding relationships.
  • Identify trophic levels in a food chain or web. 

Recycling Matter:  

  • Define biogeochemical cycles.
  • Describe the water cycle and its processes.
  • Give an overview of the carbon cycle.
  • Outline the steps of the nitrogen cycle.

Biomes:  

  • Identify and describe terrestrial biomes.
  • Give an overview of aquatic biomes. 

Module 2: Communities and Populations 

This module covers communities as part of biotic ecosystems, populations: size, density, dispersion, and growth, biodiversity, natural resources, and climate change and all interactions within the community. In this unit the relationship between human actions to the sixth mass extinction will be documented. This unit distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources and describes threats to soil and water resources. The students will recognize the causes and effects of air pollution and explain global climate change. Teacher will provide students with multiple choice assessment for the different concepts of the community and population unit. 

Community Interactions:

  • Define community as the term is used in ecology.
  • Describe predation and its effects on population size and evolution.
  • Explain why interspecific competition leads to extinction or greater specialization.
  • Compare and contrast mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
  • Outline primary and secondary succession, and define climax community. 

Characteristics of Populations:  

  • Define population size, density, and dispersion.
  • Relate population pyramids and survivorship curves to population structure.
  • Identify factors that determine population growth rate.
  • Compare and contrast exponential and logistic growth.

Human Population Growth:  

  • Describe early human population growth.
  • Outline the stages of the demographic transition.
  • Explain trends in recent human population growth.
  • Summarize the human population problem and possible solutions to the problem. 

The Biodiversity Crisis

  • Define biodiversity.
  • Identify economic benefits and ecosystem services of biodiversity.
  • Relate human actions to the sixth mass extinction. 

Natural Resources and Climate Change

  • Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources.
  • Describe threats to soil and water resources.
  • Identify the causes and effects of air pollution.
  • Explain global climate change.

Module 3: Microorganisms: Prokaryotes and Viruses 

This module serves as an introduction to the specifics of prokaryotes and viruses, as well as the interactions between bacteria and other organisms. This unit covers classification and evolution of prokaryotes. The students will diagram the structure of prokaryotes and list different types of metabolism found in prokaryotes. Students will describe the range of prokaryotic habits and explain how prokaryotic reproduce. In this unit the importance of bacteria and human relationship is documented. The students will sketch the structure of viruses and research the discovery and origin of viruses and how the replicate. This unit will explain how viruses cause human disease and how it can be controlled. The unit will reflect on research and medicine. 

Prokaryotes:

  • Outline the classification and evolution of prokaryotes.
  • Describe the structure of prokaryotes.
  • Identify different types of metabolism found in prokaryotes.
  • Describe the range of prokaryote habitats.
  • Explain how prokaryotes reproduce.
  • Identify important relationships between bacteria and humans.

Viruses:  

  • Describe the structure of viruses.
  • Outline the discovery and origins of viruses.
  • Explain how viruses replicate.
  • Explain how viruses cause human disease.
  • Describe how viruses can be controlled.
  • Identify how viruses are used in research and medicine. 

Module 4: Eukaryotes: Protists and Fungi

This unit serves as an introduction to the Kingdom Protista, the three types of protists: animal-like, plant-like, and fungus-like protists, and the classification and ecology of fungi. This unit will describe the protist kingdom, evolution, and characteristics of protist. The students will paraphrase the three different types of protists, animal-like, plant-like and fungus-like. This unit will cover several aspects of fungi. The students will determine what fungi are and their habitats. The students will document the structure and t reproduction of fungi. This unit will summarize the evolution and classification of fungi. The roles of fungi as decomposers, symbiotic relationships and human uses of fungi will be documented during this unit.  Students will explain protists cause human disease and state three ways fungi can make humans sick.

Introduction to Protists:

  • Describe the protist kingdom.
  • Outline the evolution of protists.
  • Identify protist characteristics. 

Types of Protists:  

  • Describe animal-like protists.
  • Give an overview of plant-like protists.
  • Identify types of fungus-like protists.

Introduction ot Fungi:

  • Identify what fungi are.
  • Describe habitats of fungi.
  • Outline the structure of fungi.
  • Describe fungi reproduction.
  • Summarize the evolution of fungi.
  • Give an overview of fungi classification. 

Ecology of Fungi:

  • Describe the role of fungi as decomposers.
  • Identify symbiotic relationships of fungi.
  • List human uses of fungi. 

Protists, Fungi, and Human Disease

  • Explain how protists cause human disease.
  • Identify three ways fungi can make humans sick.

Module 5: Plant Evolution and Classification 

This module is an introduction to the plant kingdom and covers the four categories of plants: nonvascular plants, vascular plants, seed plants, and flowering plants. This unit identify traits of plains. The students will recognize the importance of plants. The students will generalize the plant life cycle. The students will interpret the major events in plant evolution and show how plants are classified. This unit will describe modern nonvascular plants. The students will discover the living vascular plants, classification and evolution of seed plants. This unit investigates the adaptation and evolution of flowing plants.

Introduction to the Plant Kingdom:

  • Identify traits of plants.
  • Explain the importance of plants.
  • Give an overview of the plant life cycle.
  • Outline major events in plant evolution.
  • Describe how plants are classified. 

Four Types of Modern Plants:

  • Describe modern nonvascular plants.
  • Give an overview of living vascular plants.
  • Outline the classification and evolution of seed plants.
  • Summarize the adaptations and evolution of flowering plants. 

Module 6: Plant Biology

In this module, students will recognize plant cell structures and list types of plant cells. They will state the similarities and differences for different types of plant tissues and explain how plants grow. This unit also outlines the structure, function, and growth of roots. The students will express stem diversity and how stems function and grow. Leaf variation and how leaves make food and change seasonally will be explained in this unit. The students will restate the general plant life cycle, nonvascular, seedless vascular, gymnosperm and angiosperm life cycles. Students will define how plants have adapted to diversity of environments and provide evidence of types of plant responses to environmental stimuli. 

Plant Tissues and Growth:

  • Describe plant cell structures, and list types of plant cells.
  • Compare and contrast different types of plant tissues.
  • Explain how plants grow.

Plant Organs" Roots, Stems, and Leaves:

  • Outline the structure, function, and growth of roots.
  • Give an overview of stem diversity and how stems function and grow.
  • Describe leaf variation, and explain how leaves make food and change seasonally.

Variation in Plant Life Cycles:

  • Describe a general plant life cycle.
  • Outline the life cycle of nonvascular plants.
  • Describe the life cycle of seedless vascular plants.
  • Summarize the gymnosperm life cycle.
  • Describe the angiosperm life cycle.

Plant Adaptations and Responses:

  • Explain how plants have adapted to a diversity of environments.
  • Identify types of plant responses to environmental stimuli. 

Module 7: Introduction to Animals

In this module, students will identify the characteristics that all animals share. The students will review the major trends in animal evolution and animal classification. Additionally, general characteristics of invertebrates, major events in invertebrate evolution, and invertebrate classification will be described.

Overview of Animals:

  • Identify characteristics that all animals share.
  • Give an overview of animal classification.
  • Outline major trends in animal evolution.

Overview of Invertebrates:

  • Describe general characteristics of invertebrates.
  • Outline major events in invertebrate evolution.
  • Give an overview of invertebrate classification.

Module 8: From Sponges to Invertebrate Chordates to Fish and Birds

This module provides an overview of sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, and roundworms, discussing structure, function, reproduction, and ecology. The students will label invertebrates in the phylum Porifera, cnidarians, Platyhelminthes and nematode invertebrates. The students will categorize the invertebrates in the phylum Mollusca, Arthropoda, and echinoderms. The students will explain annelids, characteristics and importance of insects and the two subphyla of invertebrate chordates. This unit also examines vertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fishes covering their characteristics, classification, evolution, structure, function and reproduction. 

Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms:

  • Describe invertebrates in the phylum Porifera.
  • Outline characteristics of cnidarians.
  • Give an overview of the platyhelminths.
  • Summarize traits of nematode invertebrates.

Mollusks and Annelids:

  • Describe invertebrates in the phylum Mollusca.
  • Summarize the characteristics of annelids. 

Arthropods and Insects:

  • Give an overview of the phylum Arthropoda.
  • Outline the characteristics and importance of insects. 

Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates:

  • Summarize traits of echinoderm invertebrates.
  • Outline the characteristics and classification of chordates.
  • Describe the two subphyla of invertebrate chordates.

Overview of Vertebrates:

  • List the characteristics of vertebrates.
  • Explain how vertebrates reproduce.
  • Identify the nine classes of vertebrates.
  • Give an overview of vertebrate evolution. 

Fish:

  • Describe structure and function in fish.
  • Explain how fish reproduce and develop.
  • Give an overview of the five living classes of fish.
  • Summarize the evolution of fish.
  • Outline the ecology of the different fish classes. 

Amphibians:

  • Describe structure and function in amphibians.
  • Outline the reproduction and development of amphibians.
  • Identify the three living amphibian orders.
  • Describe how amphibians evolved.
  • State where amphibians live and how they obtain food. 

Reptiles:

  • Give an overview of form and function in reptiles.
  • Describe the amniotic egg and reptile reproduction.
  • Identify the four living orders of reptiles
  • Summarize how reptiles evolved.
  • Describe where reptiles live and what they eat. 

Birds:

  • Outline structure and function in birds.
  • Describe how birds reproduce and care for their young.
  • Identify several common orders of modern birds.
  • Give an overview of the evolution of birds.
  • Summarize the diversity of bird habitats and food sources.

Module 9: Mammals and Animal Behavior

This module provides an overview of mammals covering mammalian traits, reproduction, evolution, and classification. Animal behavior is also discussed, including learning and communication, as well as migration, aggression, courtship, and mating. The students will list characteristics of mammals and describe structure and function in mammals. The students will document the reproductive structures of therian, placental, monotreme and marsupials mammals. Students will confirm the evolution and classification of mammals. 

Mammalian Traits:

  • List characteristics of mammals.
  • Describe structure and function in mammals.

Reproduction in Mammals:

  • Describe female reproductive structures of therian mammals.
  • Outline reproduction in placental mammals.
  • Explain how marsupials reproduce.
  • Describe monotreme reproduction. 

Evolution and Classification of Mammals:

  • Describe the therapsid ancestors of mammals.
  • Outline the evolution of monotreme, marsupial, and placental mammals.
  • Summarize the evolution of modern mammals.
  • Contrast traditional and phylogenetic classifications of mammals.

Overview of Animal Behavior:

  • Describe how and why ethologists study animal behavior.
  • Explain how animal behaviors evolve.
  • Define innate behavior.
  • State ways that animals learn.
  • Identify types of animal behavior. 

Module 10: Introduction to the Human Body: Bones, Muscles, and Skin & the Nervous and Endocrine Systems 

This module covers the human body and its systems, including cells, tissues, and organs. The students will demonstrate the structures and functions of the skeletal, muscular, and integumentary systems. The students will distinguish the different types of joints and they move. Students will investigate how bones grow and develop and list the common problems that may affect bones and joints. The students will define the three types of human muscle tissue and how they move bones. The students will investigate the skin and its function and identify common skin problems. This unit also This unit covers the structures and functions of the nervous and endocrine systems. The students will assess the parts of the nervous system and their functions. The students will state how drugs affect the nervous system and recognize several nervous system disorders. The students will assess the parts of the endocrine system. 

Organization of the Human Body:

  • Outline the levels of organization of the human body.
  • Explain how organ systems maintain homeostasis of the body. 

The Skeletal System:

  • Give an overview of the human skeleton and its functions.
  • Describe the cells and tissues that make up bones.
  • Explain how bones grow and develop.
  • Distinguish different types of joints and how they move.
  • List common problems that may affect bones and joints.

The Skeletal System:

  • Give an overview of the human skeleton and its functions.
  • Describe the cells and tissues that make up bones.
  • Explain how bones grow and develop.
  • Distinguish different types of joints and how they move.
  • List common problems that may affect bones and joints.

The Muscular System:

  • Identify and describe the three types of human muscle tissue.
  • Describe the structure of skeletal muscles, and explain how they move bones.
  • Explain how muscles contract according to the sliding filament theory. 

The Integumentary System:

  • Describe the skin and its functions, and identify common skin problems.
  • Outline the structure and functions of the hair and nails.

The Nervous System:

  • Describe the structure of a neuron, and identify types of neurons.
  • Explain how nerve impulses are transmitted.
  • Identify parts of the central nervous system and their functions.
  • Outline the divisions and subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system.
  • Explain how sensory stimuli are perceived and interpreted.
  • State how drugs affect the nervous system.
  • Identify several nervous system disorders.

The Endocrine System:

  • List the glands of the endocrine system and their effects.
  • Explain how hormones work by binding to receptors of target cells.
  • Describe feedback mechanisms that regulate hormone secretion.
  • Identify three endocrine system disorders.

Module 11: The Immune System and Disease & Human Body Systems 

This module covers how the body fights diseases. The body's immune system, inflammatory response, and defenses against pathogens. Students will describe the barriers that keep most pathogens out of the human body and explain how the inflammatory response and nonspecific leukocytes help fight pathogens that enter the body. The students will explain the lymphatic system and its roles in the immune response while providing a list of steps that occur in a humoral immune response. Students will identify the roles of T cells in a cell-mediated immune response. They will define immunity, and distinguish between active and passive immunity. The students will explain why allergies occur, and how HIV is transmitted and how it causes AIDS. Students will research how carcinogens cause cancer and how cancer can be treated or prevented and explain how bioterrorism threatens human health. The module will also examine the components of the circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, and excretory system.  The students identify the structures, functions, pathways, and risk factors of the mentioned body systems.

Nonspecific Defenses:

  • Describe the barriers that keep most pathogens out of the human body.
  • Explain how the inflammatory response and nonspecific leukocytes help fight pathogens that enter the body. 

The Immune Response:

  • Describe the lymphatic system and its roles in the immune response.
  • List the steps that occur in a humoral immune response.
  • Identify the roles of T cells in a cell-mediated immune response.
  • Define immunity, and distinguish between active and passive immunity.

Immune System Diseases

  • Explain why allergies occur, and identify common allergens.
  • Describe how autoimmune diseases affect the body.
  • Define immunodeficiency, and list reasons for it.
  • Explain how HIV is transmitted and how it causes AIDS. 

Environmental Problems and Human Health

  • Describe how carcinogens cause cancer and how cancer can be treated or prevented.
  • Identify causes of air pollution and its effects on human health.
  • Explain how bioterrorism threatens human health.

The Circulatory System:

  • Explain how the heart pumps blood throughout the body.
  • Compare different types of blood vessels and their roles.
  • Outline pathways of the pulmonary and systemic circulations.
  • Define cardiovascular disease, and list its risk factors.
  • Describe blood, blood components, and blood pressure. 

The Respiratory System:

  • Define respiration, and explain how it differs from cellular respiration.
  • Identify the organs of the respiratory system.
  • Outline the processes of ventilation, gas exchange, and gas transport.
  • Describe the role of gas exchange in homeostasis.
  • Explain how the rate of breathing is regulated.
  • Identify diseases of the respiratory system. 

The Digestive System

  • Identify the organs and functions of the digestive system.
  • Outline the roles of the mouth, esophagus, and stomach in digestion.
  • Explain how digestion and absorption occur in the small intestine.
  • List functions of the large intestine.
  • Describe common diseases of the digestive system.
  • Identify classes of nutrients and their functions in the human body.
  • Explain how to use MyPyramid and food labels as tools for balanced eating. 

The Excretory System

  • Define excretion, and identify organs of the excretory system.
  • Explain how the urinary system filters blood and excretes wastes.
  • Describe the roles of the kidneys in homeostasis.
  • Identify kidney diseases, and describe dialysis. 

Module 12: Reproduction and Human Development

This module covers the male and female reproductive systems, the reproductive life cycle, and sexually transmitted diseases. The students will generalize the male reproductive structure and function and how sperm are produced. The students will generalize the female reproductive structure and function and how eggs are produces. The students will outline the phases of the menstrual cycle. The students will paraphrase the events that occur between fertilization, embryonic stage, placenta, pregnancy and child birth. The students will explain the stages of adulthood and explain why aging occurs. The students will define what causes STIs, identify and describe three common bacterial STIs and three common viral STIs. Students will be assessed by identifying the correct structures and functions of the male and female reproductive systems. 

Male Reproductive System:

  • Identify male reproductive structures and their functions.
  • Explain how the male reproductive system develops.
  • Describe how sperm are produced. 

Female Reproductive System:

  • Identify female reproductive structures and their functions.
  • Explain how the female reproductive system develops.
  • Describe how eggs are produced.
  • Outline the phases of the menstrual cycle. 

Female Reproductive System:

  • Identify female reproductive structures and their functions.
  • Explain how the female reproductive system develops.
  • Describe how eggs are produced.
  • Outline the phases of the menstrual cycle.

From Fertilization to Old Age:

  • Outline the events that occur between fertilization and the embryonic stage.
  • Explain how the embryo forms specialized cells and organs.
  • Identify major events in the growth and development of the fetus.
  • Explain the role of the placenta during fetal development.
  • Describe pregnancy and childbirth.
  • List milestones in growth and development from birth to adulthood.
  • Describe the stages of adulthood, and explain why aging occurs. 

Sexually Transmitted Infections

  • Explain what causes STIs and how they can be prevented.
  • Identify and describe three common bacterial STIs.
  • Identify and describe three common viral STIs.

Summary Info

Clean & Elegant
Fully Responsive

Course: Biology

Credits: 10

Subject Area: Science

Prerequisite: Physical Science or equivalent